Audited information

Estimates and judgments are continually evaluated and are based on historical experience and other factors, including expectations on future events that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances.

The Group makes estimates and takes assumptions concerning the future. The resulting accounting estimates will, by definition, seldom equal the related actual results. The estimates and assumptions that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year are discussed below.

4.1 – Estimated impairment of goodwill and property, plant and equipment

The Group tests annually whether goodwill has suffered any impairment in accordance with the requirements of IAS 36, Impairment of Assets. The recoverable amounts of all cash generating units have been determined based on value-in-use calculations.

The recoverable value of property, plant and equipment is also assessed applying value-in-use calculations. These calculations require the use of estimates, in particular in relation to the expected growth of sales, the discount rates, the development of raw material prices and the success of restructuring measures implemented (see and ).

4.2 – Environmental liabilities

The Group is exposed to environmental regulations in numerous jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining the worldwide provision for environmental remediation. The Group constantly monitors its sites to ensure with legislative requirements and to assess the liability arising from the need to adapt to changing legal demands. The Group recognizes liabilities for environmental remediation based on the latest assessment of the environmental situation of the individual sites and the most recent requirements of the respective legislation. Where the final remediation results in expenses that differ from the amounts previously recorded, such differences impact the income statement in the period in which such determination is made (see and ).

4.3 – Taxes

The Group is subject to income and other taxes in numerous jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining the worldwide provision for income and other taxes. There are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain at the time a liability must be recorded. The Group recognizes liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues based on estimates of whether additional taxes will be due. Where the final tax outcome of these matters is different from the amounts initially recorded, such differences impact the income tax and deferred tax provisions in the period in which such determination is made (see ).

Some subsidiaries generate tax losses. Often these can be used to offset taxable gains of subsequent periods. The Group constantly monitors the development of such tax loss situations. Based on the business plans for the subsidiaries concerned, the recoverability of such tax losses is determined. In the case that a tax loss is deemed to be recoverable, the capitalization of a deferred tax asset for such a tax loss is then decided. The time horizon for such a calculation is in line with the mid-term planning scope of the Group.

4.4 – Estimates for the accounting for employee benefits

IAS 19 Employee Benefits, requires that certain assumptions are made in order to determine the amount to be recorded for retirement benefit obligations and pension plan assets, in particular for defined benefit plans. These are mainly actuarial assumptions such as expected future salary increases, long-term increase in health care costs, average life expectancy and discount rates. Substantial changes in the assumed development of any of these variables may signiicantly change the Group’s retirement benefit obligation and pension assets (see ).


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